On 19 Mar 2011, an enormous crack, measuring 100 meters wide and three kilometers long, appeared in the Huacullani district in the Chucuito province, department of Puno. This crack determined Peru's geophysical institute to rule out the occurrence of an earthquake in the area. Another crack in the Earth's crust being located in the Afar region of Ethiopia was open in just a few days in 2005, a study suggested. The crack can be the forerunner to a new ocean. This crack is the surface component of a continental rift forming as the Arabian and African plates drift away from one another. It began to open up in September 2005, when Dabbahu volcano erupted. The magma inside the volcano couldn't reach the surface and erupted as a fountain of lava – instead, it was diverted into the continental rift underground. The magma cooled into a wedge-shaped "dike" that was then uplifted, rupturing the surface and creating a 500-metre-long, 60-metre-deep crack. Similar dikes around 10 kilometers long and 1 meter wide also appeared in Iceland. Some studies show that the formation of dikes can occur in large segments and over much shorter periods than previously thought. "At some point, if that spreading and rifting continues, then that area will be flooded," says Ken Macdonald, a marine geophysicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Icelanders were surprised when a large lake began to disappear into a long fissure created by one of last summer's earthquakes on September 2001, Bijal P. Trivedi for National Geographic declared. A geologist noticed a large gash in the landscape about 20 kilometers (13 miles) from Reykjavik. The fissure having a foot wide and 400 meters (1,280 feet) long led straightly into Lake Kleifarvatn, so this lake has shrunk dramatically. ''Summerhouses that were once mere steps from waterfront are now more than a kilometer away from the water's edge'', Clifton said. "I couldn't find an earthquake in our database that was big enough to cause such a huge rupture in the surface," said Clifton. Clifton tried to understand the relationship between the movement of faults deep within Earth and their surface effects in the area. A giant, deep and narrow crack was open in the ground of Seagi Gulistan, Pakistan on 7 March 2011. A large crack also appeared after a strange earthquake in Menominee Township of Michigan, US, but no one really knows why such a massive crack appeared thinking that there is no fault line in that zone. A crack over two kilometers long and up to a meter deep has been discovered on the Baltic island of Hiddensee on Jan 2012. Large zones of the German island’s coastline have been blocked off amid fears of a big landslide. Authorities from the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area national park have warned that the fracture line has been widening, with smaller cracks developing off the main fault measuring up to 10 centimeters wide. “We are preparing for a catastrophe,” park official Frank Martitz told the Bild daily. The island measuring 3.7 kilometers at its widest point and 205 meters at its narrowest point is a destination for tourists.
There were two gigantic earth changing events in Mexico in two weeks .A huge crack was open in Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato. Land sank in Venustiano Carranza.Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato and Venustiano Carranza fall in a right line from one another on the map. Similar cracks have formed recently in 2012 in Spain, Peru, and other areas around the world. On July 1, 2012, a huge crack was open in the earth between La Grulla and La Joya. The earth crack is around 13 ft. (4 m) wide, 196 ft. (60 m) deep, and 9 miles (15 km) long. Another hole was open to one side of the crack being so deep that the bottom could not be seen. The communities of Jamaica, Fátima, The Crane and The Jewel had to be isolated. Louisiana sinkhole also grows. (September, 2012)
Drastic fluctuations in ice accumulations were reported at both poles on September, 2012. Coalition chairman, Hon Barry Brill, said the most important aspect is the extent exceeds the usual Antarctica averages. “The sea ice cover yesterday was 311,000 square kilometers above the 1979-2012 average. The surplus ice is more than twice the area of New Zealand.” he said. “Over the 33-year period aggregate global sea ice volumes have remained steady, but there are fluctuations between the two polar areas from year to year. The fluctuations are the result of ocean currents and wind patterns, rather than temperatures. Antarctic ice is much more important than that of the Arctic. The area of its sea ice is a million square kilometers larger than the highest value ever recorded in the Arctic. Then, of course, the Antarctic is an entire continent, with more than 90% of the earth’s glacial ice,” Mr. Brill also declared. '' The cap of the Antarctic is increasing in thickness in most places, except around the Antarctic Peninsula. Sea ice extent is largely a consequence of sea surface temperature, ocean currents and wind,” the chairman concluded. New sea ice is finally starting to form again in the Arctic, scientists reported. Mark Serreze, director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center, said in a statement ,“While we’ve long known that as the planet warms up, changes would be seen first and be most pronounced in the Arctic,” –MSNBC.
Because of the pressure under Japan’s Mt. Fuji volcano rising, this eruption would be nightmare for Japan people being on Japanese soil at the time the earthquake-tsunami would hit, on September 7, 2012, officials said.
Earth was cracking up under Indian Ocean. On 11 April 2012, as Earth's crust began to break the tectonic plate. Two gigantic earthquakes ripped through the floor of the Indian Ocean triggering large aftershocks on faults of the world and providing the evidence that the Indo-Australian plate is being torn in two parts, Colin Barras wrote in a magazine on 26 September 2012. Twin quakes having the magnitude 8.6 and 8.2 took place off the coast of North Sumatra, geologists declared. These quakes usually occur at the boundary between tectonic plates, where one chunk of Earth's crust slides beneath another. These quakes took place at more than 100 kilometers from the subduction zone. ''Both involved rocks grinding past each other sideways with very little vertical movement - what geologists call strike-slip earthquakes. Yet strike-slip quakes this large had never been reported before.'', geologists also said. Matthias Delescluse at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, France, and his colleagues have analyzed quakes in the zone since December 2004, when a magnitude-9.1 quake in a subduction zone near Sumatra triggered a huge tsunami. They concluded that the earthquakes occurring this period were nearly ten times more frequent compared with the previous 8 years, involving rocks, which were pushed and pulled in the same directions. ‘The Indo-Australian plate is breaking up along a new plate boundary'', said the researchers. Although both are on the same plate, Australia is moving faster than India. ''This is causing a broad area in the center of the Indo-Australian plate to buckle. As a result, the plate may be splitting.'' the same researchers declared. “I think it's a fair argument that the 11 April earthquakes may mark the birth of a plate boundary," Lingsen Meng at the University of California, Berkeley, declared.
A huge crack is also open in Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier's vast crack was pictured via NASA satellite the late last fall. ''With a gargantuan crack slowly splitting it apart, Antarctica's fastest-melting glacier is about to lose a chunk of ice larger than all of New York City, scientists say.''-Richard A. Lovett at National Geographic News noted on February 2, 2012 .A Manhattan-size ice island also cracked in two parts. ''Snaking across the floating tongue of the Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica, the crack is expected to create an iceberg 350 square miles (907 square kilometers)''- according to NASA. ''Usually there's nothing extraordinary about a glacier calving,'' declared glaciologist Ted Scambos of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado.''Glaciers that flow into the sea, like the Pine Island Glacier, go through a normal cycle in which the floating section grows, stresses mount, and an iceberg breaks off, ''Scambos said. ‘But when the pattern deviates, glaciologists take notice. In this case, the crack is forming significantly farther upstream than has previously been the case. That signifies that there are changes in the ice," he declared. The ice will flow into the ocean at a faster rate, determining the sea level to rise. ''As far as sea levels are concerned, changes in the Pine Island Glacier and other West Antarctic glaciers are far more important than shifts among the continent's other glaciers, such as East Antarctica's Mertz Glacier'', declared oceanographer Doug Martinson of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
Knowing that the oceanic crust is basalt, scientists declared that molten rock had been added to the ridge as the ridge pulled apart at the center. The rock erupting under the sea lava cools in the crack of the splitting ridge. The oceanic crust is made up of long strips of caulking taking on the magnetic polarity of the earth's field. When the floor moves away from the ridges, the striped pattern of magnetic variation ends rather abruptly against the continents .Sometimes, the distribution of earthquakes is deep beneath the margins of the continents. The plates of the oceanic crust are moving down beneath the continental plates. The zone between the ridge and the continental margin is one plate, and the continent is another plate. The magnetic pattern off the coast of Washington suggests that much of the Pacific oceanic crust plunged beneath the North American continent. (Guide to the Geology of Olympic National Park by Rowland W. Tabor, of the USGS)
The earth has three concentric zones: the crust, the mantle and the core. The core can be divided into two regions: a solid inner core and a liquid outer core containing metallic iron .The crust floats upon the mantle in two forms: the continental crust and the oceanic crust. The thick continental crust has deep buoyant roots that help to support its elevations above.
Near the top of the mantle is a region of partially melted rock called the asthenosphere. The hot magma rises and the cool magma sinks due to differences in density. The layer of the mantle above the asthenosphere and the entire crust form the lithosphere. The lithosphere is broken into plates that “float" upon the asthenosphere being in constant motion. A convergent plate boundary occurs when two plates collide. If this involves two continental plates, the crust is compressed into high mountain ranges such as the Himalayas. If an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide, the oceanic crust is sub ducted under the continental crust and usually results in a deep ocean trench such as the "Mariana Trench" in the Pacific Ocean. The sub ducted crust melts and rises to the surface to form a volcano. A divergent plate boundary occurs when two plates move away from each other. Magma upwelling from the mantle region is forced through the resulting cracks to form a new crust. The mid-ocean ridge in the Atlantic Ocean is a zone, where new crustal material forms as plates diverge. Volcanoes can also occur at divergent boundaries. The island of Iceland is an example. A third type of plate boundary is the transform boundary occurring when two plates slide past one another triggering earthquake. The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a transform plate boundary. An active volcano occurs when magma reaches the earth's surface through a crack or vent in the crust determining the extrusion of lava, the ejection of solid rock, the ejection of ash, and the release of water vapor or gas. Volcanoes occur near plate boundaries, 80 percent at the convergent plate boundaries. The Cascade Range was formed in this way. An earthquake occurs when built up strain in rock mass causes a rupture below the surface of the crust. Earthquakes generally occur along breaks in the rock mass known as faults. Some 80 percent of all earthquakes occur near convergent plate boundaries. Earthquakes are also often associated with volcanic activity due to the movement of sub-surface magma. When an earthquake occurs under the ocean, it can trigger a destructive tidal wave known as a tsunami. Rocks can be classified into three groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous rocks, like granite and basalt, form when magma cools and crystallizes subsurface and on the surface. .Sedimentary rocks are formed by the consolidation of the weathered fragments of pre-existing rocks as a result of erosion and transport by wind, water or ice, followed by sediments. The process of compaction and cementation is known as lithification. Metamorphic rocks are formed when solid igneous or sedimentary rocks change in response to elevated temperature, pressure and chemically active fluids. Marble is a metamorphosed form of limestone. Anthracite is a metamorphic form of coal. Soil formation begins with unconsolidated materials that are the products of weathering. The weathering process involves the disintegration and decomposition of the rock. (University of California College Prep)
''Scientists claim that Earth is not expanding Since Darwin’s time; scientists have speculated the planet might be expanding or contracting. Even with the acceptance of plate tectonics half a century ago, which explained the large-scale motions of Earth’s outermost shell, the accusations persisted; some Earth and space scientists continued to speculate on Earth’s possible expansion or contraction on various scientific grounds.''-CHILLYMANJARO – SEPTEMBER 30, 2012
My question is- Does the earth crust crack because of losing lava, this missing making earth’s nucleus be smaller than before? The answer is,’’ Magma sometimes rises under enormous pressure, so it not only finds cracks in the earth’s crust, it can also create them.’’